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Monthly Archives: July 2017


How Viruses Enter The Cell

Virus particles are too large to diffuse across the plasma membrane.  Receptors are needed to get viruses into cells.  Then, the genome can be transferred inside the cell. Only viruses of fungi, that have no extracellular phases; and viruses of plants, which enter cells by mechanical damage, don’t utilize receptors to enter the cells.  One [...]

By | 2017-07-27T21:47:42+00:00 July 27th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

Virus Structure

Nucleocapsids are nucleic acids complexed with the protein within a virus.  To grasp how small viruses are, a polio virus is 30 nanometers.  The viruses have spikes on their outside.  Tobacco mosaic viruses are round shaped viruses.  Many capsid proteins can reassemble into virus like proteins (VLPs).  Hepatitits B-Virus (HBV) and Human Papilloma-Virus (HPV) vaccines [...]

By | 2017-07-27T21:45:42+00:00 July 27th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

How to Combat HIV

HIV (which stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus) was discovered in the late 1970's. Some of the people that acquired the HIV virus were coming down with AIDS(Acute Immuno - Deficiency Syndrome).  These patients started dying from very common diseases.  The HIV virus was found by assaying for the enzyme reverse transcriptase.  When activated reverse transcriptase [...]

By | 2017-07-20T15:27:01+00:00 July 20th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

The Theory Behind Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy

As you are probably aware, antisense oligonucleotides are synthetic single-stranded chains  of nucleic acids that bind to RNA (ribonucleic  acid) ; and in doing so alter the  or reduce the expression of the target RNA.  They reduce expression of mutant proteins and restore expression of wild type proteins. Anti-sense oligonucleotides also are known to interfere [...]

By | 2017-07-13T19:50:27+00:00 July 13th, 2017|Science|0 Comments


The linear accelerator was developed by Henry Kaplan at Stanford University.  The treatment of malignant and non-malignant conditions was limited by skin toxicities.  Linear accelerators generate high energy treatment regimens.  The physician must examine the patient and determine if the cancer patient should be treated with radiation therapy.  He must work up a good case [...]

By | 2017-07-11T17:05:19+00:00 July 11th, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Is Stem Cell Therapy Morally Acceptable

A now age old question is still making headlines in the news.  Is stem cell therapy morally acceptable?  If one considers the source of the stem cells, one might shudder.  Stem cells are derived from aborted embryos whose cells have not yet differentiated to the specialized cells of a human being.  Therefore, the stem cells [...]

By | 2017-07-10T17:00:18+00:00 July 10th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

Advantages of Solar Power

When harnessing energy from the sun, photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity.  The excess electricity can go back to your grid or be directed back to your energy company. The direct current from the sun  is converted into alternating current for use in the home by the photovoltaic cells.  Solar power in the United States [...]

By | 2017-07-06T19:38:45+00:00 July 6th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

Algae as a Source of Biofuel

It has been predicted that biofuels will become the next  essential fuel source to power the planet.  The population of earth is growing; and  the  fossil fuel supplies are becoming depleted.  Some sort of biology-based fuels will be needed to become the new energy leader of the fuel market.  Ethanol has been criticized as becoming [...]

By | 2017-07-06T19:36:10+00:00 July 6th, 2017|Science|0 Comments